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Is breast thermography safe?

Yes. Thermography is FDA approved in the US and has been used in Europe and in many countries around the world for over 30 years. Thermography is a non-invasive test, which means nothing is sent into your body. Images that are created by this technology are simply measurements of the heat that naturally radiates from your body. There is no contact of any kind, nor is there any pain or radiation.

Can breast thermography diagnose breast cancer?

Thermography cannot, and does not, diagnose breast cancer. This is also true for anatomical tests, such as mammograms, ultrasounds, and magnetic resonance imaging. Such tests provide information on the different aspects of the disease process and identify the need for further investigations. A biopsy of the breast and accompanying histological evaluation is the only definitive diagnostic test for breast cancer. Many of our patients come in after an equivocal “lets watch this area” mammography, and correlate the area to be monitored with a thermographic image of the same area. If the thermography findings appear high risk with the same area of interest, the patient will have more information with which to make an informed decision.

Does OHIP or Medicare cover breast thermography?

No. However, many private insurance companies cover the cost of this examination.

Have any studies been done regarding the accuracy of thermography?

Absolutely! Hundreds of studies have been written up in peer-reviewed medical journals over the years. For a list of these studies, please go to our Studies Section

Do I need a referral from my family doctor?

No. A referral is not necessary.

How long does a thermography scan take?

This procedure, including time to acclimate in the room, takes 30 minutes.

How often would I need to repeat this procedure?

This depends on your initial findings. With low risk findings, and depending on your age and general level of health, we will recommend annual or bi-annual screening. If your findings fall into the higher risk category, you will be asked to repeat this examination in 6 or 9 months to compare to the baseline. Because the thermogram of a healthy woman remains remarkably constant, serial thermograms can assess tissue changes over time. A healthy initial thermogram can, therefore, serve as a baseline to compare future thermograms against.

What happens if you find something suspicious?

We will ask you to escalate to structural tests to make sure that nothing is being missed at that time. In the event that your other tests come back with negative results we will continue to monitor you with greater frequency (please see the answer above) to make sure that there are no changes compared to your baseline images. We will also advise you to look at some of the risk factors that may be elevating your rating. These may include hormonal issues, diet, nutritional disturbances, endocrine disorders, and lifestyle modifications, just to name a few.

Does thermography replace mammography?

No. Thermography is not a stand-alone diagnostic test when it comes to breast cancer. Thermography differs from mammography in that it provides information on the biological activity of the breast versus the gross internal anatomy. Infrared imaging is a functional test, whereas mammography is a structural test. We recommend that, when necessary, thermography be used in conjunction with other structural examinations (mammography, ultrasound, or MRI) for the most comprehensive screening and the earliest possible detection of malignancy.

I have breast implants, is it safe to use thermography?

Yes. Breast thermography is painless and safe, using no radiation or compression. It can be used effectively and safely for all women, including pregnant or nursing women, women with dense breast tissue, women with fibrocystic condition, and women with breast implants.

How come thermography is not embraced by mainstream medicine?

As a stand-alone test, thermography has been criticized for its high rate of false negative and false positive results. Historically, infrared cameras lacked the sensitivity to detect subtle temperature changes necessary to identify and monitor disease. Since the 1990’s, major advancements in infrared technology, coupled with sophisticated computerized software programs, have resulted in a significant increase in the accuracy of thermal images. For example, a 4-year clinical trial by Parisky and colleagues demonstrated 97% sensitivity in the detection of breast cancer with the use of dynamic, computerized, thermal imaging. In another recent trial, modern digital thermography was also able to detect 97% of biopsy-confirmed breast malignancies.

The high incidence of ‘false’ positive results documented with thermography can often be a reflection of breast abnormalities that are not yet palpable through breast examination or detectable through mammograms. Early research assessing approximately 58,000 women has shown that a significant percentage (>30%) of abnormal thermograms, in the absence of any other breast abnormalities, eventually manifest at a later stage as cancer.

Because thermography cannot provide information on the exact anatomic detail of the breast or define a specific area that needs to be biopsied, it needs to be combined with an anatomical test, such as mammography. As a functional test, thermography cannot identify the specific cause of physiological changes to breast tissue. For this reason, it serves as a risk marker and complementary modality, rather than a stand-alone assessment tool.

Thermography is not a competitor to, or a replacement for, mammography. Rather it is an adjunctive tool that can identify areas of abnormal thermal symmetry, which are often associated with underlying pathology. When functional abnormalities are detected early, there is an opportunity for early intervention. Cure rates for breast cancer are thought to be as high as 95% when detected in the earliest stages. When combined with other anatomical procedures, thermography may contribute to the best possible evaluation of breast health.

What are the main benefits of thermography?

One of the key benefits of thermography is its effectiveness in women with dense breasts, making it suitable for:

Thermography can also provide early warnings of breast abnormalities and highlight potentially suspicious cases, particularly when mammographic and clinical exams are equivocal or non-specific.